GRAINS

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Amaranth

Amaranthus caudatus is a species of annual flowering plant. It goes by common names such as love-lies-bleeding, pendant amaranth, tassel flower, velvet flower, foxtail amaranth, and quilete. Many parts of the plants, including the leaves and seeds, are edible, and are frequently used as a source of food in India and South America where it is the most important Andean species of Amaranthus, known as Kwacha.

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Corn

Corn (Zea Mays), known as “Maize ” by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the American continents. Corn, also called maize, is a cereal grass related to wheat, rice, oats, and barley. It is a plant whose food value and wide variety of uses make it the most important crop grown in India and one of the most important in the world. In order of world grain production, corn ranks second after wheat and is followed by third-ranking rice. Corn is raised as source of food and food products for people, livestock feed, and industrial products including ceramics, explosives, construction materials, metal molds, paints, paper goods, textiles, industrial alcohols, and ethanol.

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Millets

Millet (Pennisetum Glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet in Indian subcontinent. Since prehistoric times, it is generally accepted that millet originated in India and was subsequently introduced into India Pearl. Millet is well adapted to production systems characterized by drought, low soil fertility, and high temperature. It performs well in soils with high salinity or low pH. Because of its tolerance to difficult growing conditions, it can be grown in areas where other cereal crops, such as maize or wheat, would not survive. Millet grain is comparatively high in protein and has a good amino acid balance. It is high in lysine and methionine + cysteine levels. It contains twice as much methionine than sorghum, an important trait for organic poultry production. The grain is also comparatively high in fat, and linolenic acid comprises 4% of the total fatty acids. Even when grown in highly stressed conditions, the grain is essentially free of aflatoxins and fumonisins.

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Quinoa

Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa was first cultivated by farmers in the Gujrat and A.P mountains in India between 5,000 and 7,000 years ago. While it’s often referred to as a grain, this is a common misconception. Quinoa is a broadleaf plant, which makes it a pseudocereal along with other ancient “grains” like amaranth and buckwheat.

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Rice

The finest Indian long grained rice grows in the foothills of the Himalayas. It is known as the prince of the rice because of its fine flavor and aroma. It should be rinsed and soaked for 10 minutes before using. Rice is primarily a high energy calorie food. The major part of rice consists of carbohydrate in the form of starch, which is about 72-75 percent of the total grain composition. The protein content of rice is around 7 percent. The protein of rice contains glutelin, which is also known as Oryza Sativa. The nutritive value of rice protein (biological value = 80) is much higher than that of wheat (biological value = 60) and maize (biological value = 50) or other cereals. Rice contains most of the minerals mainly located in the pericarp and germ and about 4 percent phosphorus. Rice also contains some enzymes.

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Wheat

Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) is cultivated grass from India. Wheat supplies much of the world’s dietary protein and food supply, as many as one in every 100 to 200 people has Celiac disease, a condition which results from an immune system response to a protein found in wheat: gluten. Within a species, wheat cultivars are further classified by wheat breeders and farmers in terms of growing season, such as winter wheat v/s spring wheat,[ by gluten content, such as hard wheat (high protein content) v/s soft wheat (high starch content), or by grain color (red, white or amber).

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